Introduction: Install LAMP Server on Ubuntu 18.04
How to Install the prominent LAMP Server on Ubuntu 18.04. In this post, we have managed to share a brief simple guide for How To Install Apache on Ubuntu 18.04. First of all, the term LAMP is an acronym which represents the Linux OS running the Apache web server with site data is stored in a MySQL database, and PHP, all it all together forms the LAMP. Install LAMP Server on Ubuntu 18.04.
In this guide, we will install a LAMP Server on Ubuntu 18.04.
To complete this tutorial, you will need to have an Ubuntu 18.04 server. This can be configured using our initial server setup guide for Ubuntu 18.04.
Step 1 — Installing Apache and Updating the Firewall
The Apache web server is among the most popular web servers in the world. It’s well-documented and has been in wide use for much of the history of the web, which makes it a great default choice for hosting a website.
Install Apache using Ubuntu’s package manager,
sudo apt update
sudo apt install apache2
Since this is a sudo command, these operations are executed with root privileges. It will ask you for your regular user’s password to verify your intentions.
Once you’ve entered your password,
apt will tell you which packages it plans to install and how much extra disk space they’ll take up. Press
Y and hit
ENTER to continue, and the installation will proceed.
Adjust the Firewall to Allow Web Traffic
Next, assuming that you have followed the initial server setup instructions and enabled the UFW firewall, make sure that your firewall allows HTTP and HTTPS traffic. You can check that UFW has an application profile for Apache like so:
sudo ufw app list
Available applications: Apache Apache Full Apache Secure OpenSSH
If you look at the
Apache Full profile, it should show that it enables traffic to ports
sudo ufw app info "Apache Full"
Profile: Apache Full Title: Web Server (HTTP,HTTPS) Description: Apache v2 is the next generation of the omnipresent Apache web server. Ports: 80,443/tcp
Allow incoming HTTP and HTTPS traffic for this profile:
sudo ufw allow in "Apache Full"
You can do a spot check right away to verify that everything went as planned by visiting your server’s public IP address in your web browser (see the note under the next heading to find out what your public IP address is if you do not have this information already):
You will see the default Ubuntu 18.04 Apache web page, which is there for informational and testing purposes. It should look something like this:
If you see this page, then your web server is now correctly installed and accessible through your firewall.
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Step 2 — Installing MySQL
Now that you have your web server up and running, it is time to install MySQL. MySQL is a database management system. Basically, it will organize and provide access to databases where your site can store information.
apt to acquire and install this software:
sudo apt install mysql-server
Note: In this case, you do not have to run
sudo apt update prior to the command. This is because you recently ran it in the commands above to install Apache. The package index on your computer should already be up-to-date.
This command, too, will show you a list of the packages that will be installed, along with the amount of disk space they’ll take up. Enter
Y to continue.
When the installation is complete, run a simple security script that comes pre-installed with MySQL which will remove some dangerous defaults and lock down access to your database system. Start the interactive script by running:
This will ask if you want to configure the
VALIDATE PASSWORD PLUGIN.
Note: Enabling this feature is something of a judgment call. If enabled, passwords which don’t match the specified criteria will be rejected by MySQL with an error. This will cause issues if you use a weak password in conjunction with software which automatically configures MySQL user credentials, such as the Ubuntu packages for phpMyAdmin. It is safe to leave validation disabled, but you should always use strong, unique passwords for database credentials.
Y for yes, or anything else to continue without enabling.
VALIDATE PASSWORD PLUGIN can be used to test passwords and improve security. It checks the strength of password and allows the users to set only those passwords which are secure enough. Would you like to setup VALIDATE PASSWORD plugin? Press y|Y for Yes, any other key for No:
If you answer “yes”, you’ll be asked to select a level of password validation. Keep in mind that if you enter
2 for the strongest level, you will receive errors when attempting to set any password which does not contain numbers, upper and lowercase letters, and special characters, or which is based on common dictionary words.
There are three levels of password validation policy: LOW Length >= 8 MEDIUM Length >= 8, numeric, mixed case, and special characters STRONG Length >= 8, numeric, mixed case, special characters and dictionary file Please enter 0 = LOW, 1 = MEDIUM and 2 = STRONG: 1
Regardless of whether you chose to set up the
VALIDATE PASSWORD PLUGIN, your server will next ask you to select and confirm a password for the MySQL root user. This is an administrative account in MySQL that has increased privileges. Think of it as being similar to the root account for the server itself (although the one you are configuring now is a MySQL-specific account). Make sure this is a strong, unique password, and do not leave it blank.
If you enabled password validation, you’ll be shown the password strength for the root password you just entered and your server will ask if you want to change that password. If you are happy with your current password, enter
N for “no” at the prompt:
Using existing password for root. Estimated strength of the password: 100 Change the password for root ? ((Press y|Y for Yes, any other key for No) : n
For the rest of the questions, press
Y and hit the
ENTER key at each prompt. This will remove some anonymous users and the test database, disable remote root logins, and load these new rules so that MySQL immediately respects the changes you have made.
Note that in Ubuntu systems running MySQL 5.7 (and later versions), the root MySQL user is set to authenticate using the
auth_socket plugin by default rather than with a password. This allows for some greater security and usability in many cases, but it can also complicate things when you need to allow an external program (e.g., phpMyAdmin) to access the user.
If you prefer to use a password when connecting to MySQL as root, you will need to switch its authentication method from
mysql_native_password. To do this, open up the MySQL prompt from your terminal:
Next, check which authentication method each of your MySQL user accounts use with the following command:
SELECT user,authentication_string,plugin,host FROM mysql.user;
+------------------+-------------------------------------------+-----------------------+-----------+ | user | authentication_string | plugin | host | +------------------+-------------------------------------------+-----------------------+-----------+ | root | | auth_socket | localhost | | mysql.session | *THISISNOTAVALIDPASSWORDTHATCANBEUSEDHERE | mysql_native_password | localhost | | mysql.sys | *THISISNOTAVALIDPASSWORDTHATCANBEUSEDHERE | mysql_native_password | localhost | | debian-sys-maint | *CC744277A401A7D25BE1CA89AFF17BF607F876FF | mysql_native_password | localhost | +------------------+-------------------------------------------+-----------------------+-----------+ 4 rows in set (0.00 sec)
In this example, you can see that the root user does in fact authenticate using the auth_socket plugin. To configure the root account to authenticate with a password, run the following ALTER USER command. Be sure to change password to a strong password of your choosing:
ALTER USER 'root'@'localhost' IDENTIFIED WITH mysql_native_password BY 'password';
FLUSH PRIVILEGES which tells the server to reload the grant tables and put your new changes into effect:
Check the authentication methods employed by each of your users again to confirm that root no longer authenticates using the
SELECT user,authentication_string,plugin,host FROM mysql.user;
+------------------+-------------------------------------------+-----------------------+-----------+ | user | authentication_string | plugin | host | +------------------+-------------------------------------------+-----------------------+-----------+ | root | *3636DACC8616D997782ADD0839F92C1571D6D78F | mysql_native_password | localhost | | mysql.session | *THISISNOTAVALIDPASSWORDTHATCANBEUSEDHERE | mysql_native_password | localhost | | mysql.sys | *THISISNOTAVALIDPASSWORDTHATCANBEUSEDHERE | mysql_native_password | localhost | | debian-sys-maint | *CC744277A401A7D25BE1CA89AFF17BF607F876FF | mysql_native_password | localhost | +------------------+-------------------------------------------+-----------------------+-----------+ 4 rows in set (0.00 sec)
You can see in this example output that the root MySQL user now authenticates using a password. Once you confirm this on your own server, you can exit the MySQL shell:
At this point, your database system is now set up and you can move on to installing PHP, the final component of the LAMP stack.
Step 3 — Installing PHP
PHP is the component of your setup that will process code to display dynamic content. It can run scripts, connect to your MySQL databases to get information and hand the processed content over to your web server to display.
Once again, leverage the
apt system to install PHP. Besides, include some helper packages this time so that PHP code can run under the Apache server and talk to your MySQL database:
sudo apt install php libapache2-mod-php php-mysql
This should install PHP without any problems. We’ll test this in a moment.
In most cases, you will want to modify the way that Apache serves files when a directory is requested. Currently, if a user requests a directory from the server, Apache will first look for a file called
index.html. We want to tell the web server to prefer PHP files over others, so make Apache look for an
index.php file first.
To do this, type this command to open the
dir.conf file in a text editor with root privileges:
sudo nano /etc/apache2/mods-enabled/dir.conf
It will look like this:
<IfModule mod_dir.c> DirectoryIndex index.html index.cgi index.pl index.php index.xhtml index.htm </IfModule>
Move the PHP index file (highlighted above) to the first position after the
DirectoryIndex specification, like this:
<IfModule mod_dir.c> DirectoryIndex index.php index.html index.cgi index.pl index.xhtml index.htm </IfModule>
When you are finished, save and close the file by pressing
CTRL+X. Confirm the save by typing
Y and then hit
ENTER to verify the file save location.
After this, restart the Apache web server for your changes to be recognized. Do this by typing this:
sudo systemctl restart apache2
You can also check on the status of the apache2 service using
sudo systemctl status apache2
apache2.service - LSB: Apache2 web server Loaded: loaded (/etc/init.d/apache2; bad; vendor preset: enabled) Drop-In: /lib/systemd/system/apache2.service.d └─apache2-systemd.conf Active: active (running) since Tue 2018-04-23 14:28:43 EDT; 45s ago Docs: man:systemd-sysv-generator(8) Process: 13581 ExecStop=/etc/init.d/apache2 stop (code=exited, status=0/SUCCESS) Process: 13605 ExecStart=/etc/init.d/apache2 start (code=exited, status=0/SUCCESS) Tasks: 6 (limit: 512) CGroup: /system.slice/apache2.service ├─13623 /usr/sbin/apache2 -k start ├─13626 /usr/sbin/apache2 -k start ├─13627 /usr/sbin/apache2 -k start ├─13628 /usr/sbin/apache2 -k start ├─13629 /usr/sbin/apache2 -k start └─13630 /usr/sbin/apache2 -k start
Q to exit this status output.
To enhance the functionality of PHP, you have the option to install some additional modules. To see the available options for PHP modules and libraries, pipe the results of
apt search into
less, a pager which lets you scroll through the output of other commands:
apt search php- | less
Google the term for more information on additional modules
Step 4 — Testing PHP Processing on your Web Server
In order to test that your system is configured correctly for PHP, create a very basic PHP script called
info.php. In order for Apache to find this file and serve it correctly, it must be saved to a particular directory, which is called the “web root”.
In Ubuntu 18.04, this directory is located at
/var/www/html/. Create the file at that location by running:
sudo nano /var/www/html/info.php
This will open a blank file. Add the following text, which is valid PHP code, inside the file:
<?php phpinfo(); ?>
When you are finished, save and close the file.
Now you can test whether your web server is able to correctly display content generated by this PHP script. To try this out, visit this page in your web browser. You’ll need your server’s public IP address again.
The address you will want to visit is:
The page that you come to should look something like this:
This page provides some necessary information about your server from the perspective of PHP. It is useful for debugging and to ensure that your settings are being applied correctly.
If you can see this page in your browser, then your PHP is working as expected.
You probably want to remove this file after this test because it could actually give information about your server to unauthorized users. To do this, run the following command:
sudo rm /var/www/html/info.php
You can always recreate this page if you need to reaccess the information later.
So the question Install LAMP Server on Ubuntu 18.04 has over. Now that you have a LAMP stack installed, you have many choices for what to do next. Basically, you’ve installed a platform that will allow you to install most kinds of websites and web software on your server.
As an immediate next step, you should ensure that connections to your web server are secured, by serving them via HTTPS. The easiest option here is to use Let’s Encrypt to secure your site with a free TLS/SSL certificate.