How To Install WordPress with LAMP on Ubuntu 18.04

How To Install WordPress with LAMP on Ubuntu 18.04

Introduction

In this guide, we are sharing a detailed guide to Install WordPress on Ubuntu 18.04. WordPress – the most popular Content Management System on the internet allows you to quickly set up of flexible blogs and websites on top of a MySQL backend with PHP. After the WordPress setup, almost all administration and management can be done through the web frontend.

In this guide, we’ll focus on install WordPress instance set up on a LAMP stack running Ubuntu 18.04 server.

Install WordPress on Ubuntu 18.04

Install WordPress on Ubuntu 18.04

Below is the guide for installing wordpress on Ubuntu 18.04 using LAMP. Before we begins ensure the following things.

Prerequisites

In order to complete this tutorial, you will need access to an Ubuntu 18.04 server.

You will need to perform the following tasks before you can start this guide:

  • Install a LAMP stack: WordPress will need a web server, a database, and PHP in order to function properly. Setting up a LAMP stack (Linux, Apache, MySQL, and PHP) fulfills all of these requirements. Follow this guide to install and configure this software.
  • Secure your site with SSL: For the security purposes google recommends to use TLS/SSL technology that allows you to encrypt the traffic from your site so that your connection is secure. Further it helps in ranking and SEO. If you have a domain name the easiest way to secure your site is with Let’s Encrypt, which provides free, trusted certificates. Follow our Let’s Encrypt guide for Apache to set this up.

When you are finished with the setup steps, log into your server as your sudo user and continue below.

Step 1 – Creating a MySQL Database and User for WordPress

WordPress uses MySQL to manage and store website and user information. If you have already MySQL installed, now we need to make a database and a user for WordPress to use.

The first step that we will take is a preparatory one. WordPress uses MySQL to manage and store site and user information. We have MySQL installed already, but we need to make a database and a user for WordPress to use.

Log into the MySQL root account by issuing this command:

mysql -u root -p

First, we can create a database for WordPress to control. You can name this whatever, for better understanding we use as WordPress here. So let’s create the database for WordPress by typing:

CREATE DATABASE wordpress DEFAULT CHARACTER SET utf8 COLLATE utf8_unicode_ci;
[alert-note]Note: Every MySQL statement must end in a semi-colon (;). Check to make sure this is present if you are running into any issues.[/alert-note]

Step 2 – Create MySQL User

Next, we are going to create MySQL users for operating our new database. We will use the name wpuser in this guide. Feel free to change this if you’d like.

Now, set a password, and grant access to the database we created. We can do this by typing the following command. Remember to choose a strong password here for your database user:

GRANT ALL ON wordpress.* TO 'wpuser'@'localhost' IDENTIFIED BY 'password';

You now have a database and user account. Now, flush the privileges so that the MySQL knows about the recent changes we’ve made:

FLUSH PRIVILEGES;

Exit out of MySQL by typing:

EXIT;

Step 3 – Adjusting Apache’s Configuration to Allow for .htaccess Overrides and Rewrites

You should have a configuration file for your site in the /etc/apache2/sites-available/directory. We’ll use /etc/apache2/sites-available/000-default.conf as an example here.

[alert-note]Note: It’s possible you are using the 000-default.conf default configuration (with /var/www/html as your web root). This is fine to use if you’re only going to host one website on this server. If not, it’s best to split the necessary configuration into logical chunks, one file per site.[/alert-note]

Enabling .htaccess Overrides

Currently, the use of .htaccess files is disabled. WordPress and many WordPress plugins use these file for various tweaks so we are going to enable the .htaccess edits.

Open the Apache configuration file for your website:

sudo nano /etc/apache2/sites-available/wordpress.conf

To allow .htaccess files, we need to set the AllowOverride directive within a Directory block pointing to our document root. Add the following block of text inside the VirtualHost block in your configuration file, being sure to use the correct web root directory:

/etc/apache2/sites-available/wordpress.conf

<Directory /var/www/wordpress/>
AllowOverride All
</Directory>

When you are finished, save and close the file.

Enabling the Rewrite Module

Next, we can enable mod_rewrite so that we can utilize the WordPress permalink feature:

sudo a2enmod rewrite

Enabling the Changes

Before we implement the changes we’ve made, check to make sure we haven’t made any syntax errors:

sudo apache2ctl configtest

The output might have a message that looks like this:

Output:

AH00558: apache2: Could not reliably determine the server's fully qualified domain name, using 127.0.1.1. Set the 'ServerName' directive globally to suppress this message
Syntax OK

If you wish to suppress the above lines, just add a ServerName directive to your main (global) Apache configuration file at /etc/apache2/apache2.conf. The ServerName can be your server’s domain or IP address. This is just a message and will not affect the functionality of our site. As long as the output contains, Syntax OK you are ready to continue.

Restart Apache to implement the changes:

sudo systemctl restart apache2

Next, we will download and set up WordPress itself.

Step 4 – Download and Install WordPress

Now, our server is fully configured to download and run WordPress. It is recommended to always download and use the latest version of WordPress form their site. 

Change into a temporary writable directory and then download the compressed release by typing:

cd /tmp

curl -O https://wordpress.org/latest.tar.gz

Extract the compressed file to create the WordPress directory structure:

tar xzvf latest.tar.gz

We will be moving these files into our document root very soon. Before we do, we can add a dummy .htaccess file so that this will be available for WordPress to use later.

Create the file by typing:

touch /tmp/wordpress/.htaccess

We’ll also copy over the sample configuration file to the filename that WordPress actually reads:

cp /tmp/wordpress/wp-config-sample.php /tmp/wordpress/wp-config.php

We can also create the upgrade directory, so that WordPress won’t run into permissions issues when trying to do this on its own following an update to its software:

mkdir /tmp/wordpress/wp-content/upgrade

Now, we can copy the entire contents of the directory into our document root. We are using a dot at the end of our source directory to indicate that everything within the directory should be copied, including hidden files (like the .htaccess file we created):

sudo cp -a /tmp/wordpress/. /var/www/wordpress

Step 5 – Configuring the WordPress Directory

Before we do the web-based WordPress setup, we need to adjust some items in our WordPress directory.

Adjusting the Ownership and Permissions

One of the big things we need to accomplish is setting up reasonable file permissions and ownership.

We’ll begin by giving ownership for the documents to the www-data user and group. This is the user that the Apache web server keeps running as, and Apache should have the capacity to peruse and compose WordPress records so as to serve the site and perform programmed refreshes.

Update the ownership with chown:

sudo chown -R www-data:www-data /var/www/wordpress

Next we will run two find commands to set the correct permissions on the WordPress directories and files:

sudo find /var/www/wordpress/ -type d -exec chmod 750 {} \;

sudo find /var/www/wordpress/ -type f -exec chmod 640 {} \;

These should be reasonable permissions set to start with. Some plugins and procedures might require additional.

Setting up the WordPress Configuration File

Now, we need to make some changes to the main WordPress configuration file.

When we open the file, our first order of business will be to adjust some secret keys to provide some security for our installation. WordPress provides a secure generator for these values so that you do not have to try to come up with good values on your own. These are only used internally, so it won’t hurt usability to have complex, secure values here.

To grab secure values from the WordPress secret key generator, type:

curl -s https://api.wordpress.org/secret-key/1.1/salt/

You will get back unique values that look something like this:

[alert-warning]Warning! It is important that you request unique values each time. Do NOT copy the values shown below![/alert-warning]

Output

define('AUTH_KEY', '1jl/vqfs<XhdXoAPz9 DO NOT COPY THESE VALUES c_j{iwqD^<+c9.k<[email protected]');
define('SECURE_AUTH_KEY', 'E2N-h2]Dcvp+aS/p7X DO NOT COPY THESE VALUES {Ka(f;rv?Pxf})CgLi-3');
define('LOGGED_IN_KEY', 'W(50,{W^,OPB%PB<JF DO NOT COPY THESE VALUES 2;y&,2m%3]R6DUth[;88');
define('NONCE_KEY', 'll,4UC)7ua+8<!4VM+ DO NOT COPY THESE VALUES #`DXF+[$atzM7 o^-C7g');
define('AUTH_SALT', 'koMrurzOA+|L_lG}kf DO NOT COPY THESE VALUES 07VC*Lj*lD&?3w!BT#-');
define('SECURE_AUTH_SALT', 'p32*p,]z%LZ+pAu:VY DO NOT COPY THESE VALUES C-?y+K0DK_+F|0h{!_xY');
define('LOGGED_IN_SALT', 'i^/G2W7!-1H2OQ+t$3 DO NOT COPY THESE VALUES t6**bRVFSD[Hi])-qS`|');
define('NONCE_SALT', 'Q6]U:K?j4L%Z]}h^q7 DO NOT COPY THESE VALUES 1% ^qUswWgn+6&xqHN&%');

These are configuration lines that we can paste directly in our configuration file to set secure keys. Copy the output you received now.

Now, open the WordPress configuration file:

sudo nano /var/www/wordpress/wp-config.php

Find the section that contains the dummy values for those settings. It will look something like this:

/var/www/wordpress/wp-config.php

. . .
define('AUTH_KEY', 'put your unique phrase here');
define('SECURE_AUTH_KEY', 'put your unique phrase here');
define('LOGGED_IN_KEY', 'put your unique phrase here');
define('NONCE_KEY', 'put your unique phrase here');
define('AUTH_SALT', 'put your unique phrase here');
define('SECURE_AUTH_SALT', 'put your unique phrase here');
define('LOGGED_IN_SALT', 'put your unique phrase here');
define('NONCE_SALT', 'put your unique phrase here');
. . .

Delete those lines and paste in the values you copied from the command line:

/var/www/wordpress/wp-config.php

. . .
define('AUTH_KEY', 'VALUES COPIED FROM THE COMMAND LINE');
define('SECURE_AUTH_KEY', 'VALUES COPIED FROM THE COMMAND LINE');
define('LOGGED_IN_KEY', 'VALUES COPIED FROM THE COMMAND LINE');
define('NONCE_KEY', 'VALUES COPIED FROM THE COMMAND LINE');
define('AUTH_SALT', 'VALUES COPIED FROM THE COMMAND LINE');
define('SECURE_AUTH_SALT', 'VALUES COPIED FROM THE COMMAND LINE');
define('LOGGED_IN_SALT', 'VALUES COPIED FROM THE COMMAND LINE');
define('NONCE_SALT', 'VALUES COPIED FROM THE COMMAND LINE');
. . .

Next, we need to modify some of the database connection settings at the beginning of the file. You need to adjust the database name, the database user, and the associated password that we configured within MySQL.

This setting can be added below the database connection settings, or anywhere else in the file:

/var/www/wordpress/wp-config.php

. . .

define('DB_NAME', 'wordpress');

/** MySQL database username */
define('DB_USER', 'wordpressuser');

/** MySQL database password */
define('DB_PASSWORD', 'password');

. . .

define('FS_METHOD', 'direct');

Save and close the file when you are finished.

[alert-note]CTRL + O to save and CTRL + X to exit[/alert-note]

Step 6 – Completing the Installation Through the Web Interface

Now that the server configuration is complete, we can complete the installation through the web interface.

In your web browser, navigate to your server’s domain name or public IP address:

https://server_domain_or_IP

Select the language you would like to use:

Next, you will come to the main setup page.

Type a name for your WordPress site and choose a username (it is recommended not to choose something like “admin” for security purposes). A strong password is generated automatically. Save this password in a notepad or online notes keepers like Google Keep or Evernote.

Enter your email address and select whether you want to discourage search engines from indexing your site:

When you click ahead, you will be taken to a page that prompts you to log in:

Once you log in, you will be taken to the WordPress administration dashboard:

Conclusion

Howdy! your wordpress website is now installed and is ready to use. Some common nex steps are to choose permalinks settings for your posts (can be found in Settings > Permalinks) or to select a new theme (in Appearance > Themes). If this is your first time using WordPress, explore the interface a bit to get familiarize with your new CMS.

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